قاعدة الرسائل الجامعية
فاعلية خرائط التفكير في تنمية المفاهيم الجغرافية ومهارات التفكير الاستدلالي لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الإعدادية .
عنوان الرسالة : فاعلية خرائط التفكير في تنمية المفاهيم الجغرافية ومهارات التفكير الاستدلالي لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الإعدادية .
عنوان الرسالة المترجم : Effectiveness of Thinking Maps in Developing Geographic Concepts and Deductive thinking Skills among Preparatory School Pupils.
اسم الباحث : الهور، بلال لطفي محمود.
الدرجة : ماجستير
الكلية - القسم : جامعة عين شمس.، كلية البنات للآداب والعلوم والتربية. -قسم المناهج وطرق التدريس.
الجامعة : جامعة عين شمس.، كلية البنات للآداب والعلوم والتربية. -قسم المناهج وطرق التدريس.
التاريخ : 2015
الموضوع : المناهج-، طرق التدريس.
المشرف : ريان، فكري حسن.، مشرف.
الرابط :
عنوان الدراسة: فاعلية خرائط التفكير في تنمية المفاهيم الجغرافية ومهارات التفكير الاستدلالي لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الإعدادية . الباحث: بلال لطفي محمود الهور . الدرجة العلمية: ماجستير في التربية تخصص مناهج وطرق تدريس جغرافيا . إشراف: أ.د/ فكري حسن ريان – أستاذ المناهج وطرق التدريس بالكلية . أ.م.د، إيمان محمد عبد الوارث – أستاذ المناهج وطرق التدريس المساعد بالكلية . مشكلة الدراسة: تتحدد مشكلة الدراسة الحالية في محاولة الكشف عن فاعلية خرائط التفكير في تنمية المفاهيم الجغرافية ومهارات التفكير الاستدلالي لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الإعدادية . إجراءات الدراسة: 1.إعادة صياغة وحدتين من منهج الصف الثالث الإعدادي وفقاً لخرائط التفكير . 2.إعداد دليل المعلم وضبطه . 3.إعداد كتيب التلميذ وضبطه . 4.إعداد اختبار تحصيلي للمفاهيم الجغرافية وضبطه . 5.إعداد اختبار مهارات التفكير الاستدلالي وضبطه . النتائج: أثبتت الدراسة فاعلية خرائط التفكير في تنمية المفاهيم الجغرافية ومهارات التفكير الاستدلالي لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الإعدادية.
The era which we live in is characterized by knowledge explosion and scientific and technological progress in all areas of life، resulting in inflation volume of information، so man should invest his energies and potential to keep pace with this evolution. Hence، the education pledged the responsibility preparing their children and developing their abilities in the educational systems imposed this necessity. It is a fact that development will not happen among children without causing the development in teaching methods. Social Studies in general and Geography in particular are considered as important subjects، which are closely linked to thinking، where their subjects are based on the issues that need to mental processes and skills evidentiary the ability to understand. The emphasis is on the importance of thinking as a goal of teaching geography to raise criticism، debates، weight of evidences and the linking the causes with results. Preparatory stage occupies a privileged position in the educational ladder، where it is considered the link between basic education and secondary education. social studies in general and methods of teaching geography in particular should be developed، as the prevailing of traditional methods which characterized by stagnation and inactivity and do not assist in achieving objectives of the subject. It was imperative for education to find modern and effective methods of teaching that develop the personality of the learner in all its aspects، and help to achieve the objectives of social studies in general and geography in particular، therefore، the researcher used thinking maps in the teaching of geography for the detection of its effectiveness in developing the geographic concepts and inferential thinking skills among middle school students. Statement of the problem The problem of the research was identified in the low level of understanding of geographical concepts، as well as، the low level of possession of third preparatory graders for higher thinking skills، which called for the need to use the modern entrances and methods of teaching that will work on the development of learners in all aspects of their personality، and at the same time to contribute in achieving the educational goals when teaching social studies in general and geography، and improving reality of teaching in particular. In light of what has already been mentioned، the research problem was identified in the following main question: What is the effectiveness of the maps thinking in developing the geographic concepts and inferential thinking skills among middle school students? from this main question، the following sub questions emerge: 1. What are the inferential thinking skills appropriate for the preparatory school students? 2. What are the steps for preparing geography content for third preparatory grade using thinking maps? 3. What is the effectiveness of using maps thinking in developing geographic concepts at third preparatory graders? 4. What is the effectiveness of using maps thinking in developing inferential thinking skills in geography at the third preparatory graders? Hypotheses of the study The Current research sought to validate the following hypotheses: 1- There is no statistically significant difference (0.05) between the averages of students experimental and control groups in the pre-application for: a- Geographical Concepts Test، b- Inferential Thinking Skills Test. 2- There is a statistically significant difference at (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental and control groups in the post-test application of the geographic concepts as a whole and in each level separately in favor of the experimental group. 3- There is a statistically significant difference at (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group in the pre and post-test applications of the geographic concepts as a whole and in each level separately in favor of the post-test application. 4- There is a statistically significant difference at (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental and control groups in the post-test application of the Inferential Thinking Skills as a whole and in each level separately in favor of the experimental group. 5- There is a statistically significant difference at (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group in the pre and post-test applications of the Inferential Thinking Skills as a whole and in each level separately in favor of the post-test application. Aim of the study The current study aimed at 1. Identifying the effectiveness of thinking maps in developing the geographic concepts at the third preparatory graders. 2. Identifying the effectiveness of thinking maps in developing the inferential thinking skills at the third preparatory graders. Delimitations of the study The current study is delimited to: 1. A selected sample from third preparatory graders – Al Shouka preparatory school for boys. 2. Preparation of two units by using thinking maps، namely the second and the third unit (geological structure and topography، climate of the Arab world) of the geography syllabus of the third preparatory grade in Gaza، because it contains many of the geographical concepts and topics. 3. The development of geographic concepts in light of the three levels (remembering، understanding، practice). 4. The development of inferential thinking skills (inductive reasoning، deductive reasoning and inferential representation). Significance of the study It is hopeful that the current study will: ? develop the geographic concepts in three levels (remembering، understanding، and application)، and inferential thinking skills in geography at the third preparatory graders ? provide a conceptual framework in which the researcher addressed the thinking maps and geographical concepts، and inferential thinking skills. ? provide a test to measure the achievement of geographical concepts in three levels (remembering، understanding، and application)، and also a test to measure the inferential thinking skills، as a useful tool for teachers when assessing their pupils. ? provide test makers of social studies curriculum with two units that have been drafted in accordance with the thinking maps in geography. ? provide researchers with the opportunity to conduct other studies using thinking maps in detection its effectiveness in other subjects. Methodology of the study In the current study، the researcher adopted: ? The descriptive analytical approach to identify the research problem، its dimensions، and the theoretical framework of the study. ? The experimental pedagogical approach to implement the experiment of study by using the design of the two groups (experimental and control groups) and the disclosure of the validity of hypotheses. Tools of the study The researcher prepared the following tools: A. Tools of Experimentation as follow: 1. Teacher’s Guide for teaching the re-drafted two units by using thinking maps. 2. Students’ handbook (subject handbook and educational activities). B. Tools of Measurement as follow: 1. Geographical Concepts Test a three levels (Remembering، Understanding and Practice). 2. Inferential Thinking skills Test. Procedures of the study To answer the research questions and validate the hypotheses، the following procedures and steps were followed: ? First، reviewing literature and previous studies relevant to the study. ? Second، to answer the first and the second questions and validate hypotheses of the study as follow: Reformulating the two selected units by using the thinking maps. Preparing the Teacher’s Guide for teaching the re-formulated two units by using thinking maps. Preparing the Students’ Handbook for the study of the re-formulated two units by using thinking maps. Preparing the measurement tools (the geographical concepts test، inferential thinking skills testing) and presenting them to the gentlemen arbitrators to make sure of the validity and reliability. Selecting two random classes of third graders preparatory classes –al Shouka prep school - for boys in Rafah belonging to UNRWA at Gaza Strip. Administering the pre-tests on the two groups of the study. Teaching the two re-formulated units by using the thinking maps for students of the experimental group and teaching the same units for students of the control group in the traditional way. Administering the post-tests on the two groups of the study. Monitoring and processing the data statistically and analyzing and interpreting the results reached in the light of the study questions and hypotheses. Setting recommendations. Findings: Findings of the current study were: First، Findings of the Geographical Concepts Test: 1. There was no statistically significant difference (0.05) between the averages of students experimental and control groups in the pre-application for: a- Geographical Concepts Test، b- Inferential Thinking Skills Test. 2. There is a statistically significant difference at (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental and control groups in the post-test application of the geographic concepts as a whole and in each level separately in favor of the experimental group. 3. There was a statistically significant difference at (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group in the pre and post-test applications of the geographic concepts as a whole and in each level separately in favor of the post-test application. 4. The current study provided evidence for the effectiveness of the Maps Thinking in developing the geographical concepts among students. Second، Findings of the Inferential Thinking Skills Test: 1. There was a statistically significant difference at (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental and control groups in the post-test application of the Inferential Thinking Skills as a whole and in each level separately in favor of the experimental group. 2. There was a statistically significant difference at (0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group in the pre and post-test applications of the Inferential Thinking Skills as a whole and in each level separately in favor of the post-test application. 3. The current study provided evidence for the effectiveness of the Maps thinking in developing of the Inferential Thinking among students. Recommendations Findings reached in the current study proved the effectiveness of the thinking maps for Teaching Geography in developing the geographic concepts and Inferential Thinking Skills of the third preparatory graders، therefore، the following recommendations are laid out: ? For curriculum planners ? Authors and developers of curricula of geography and teaching methods should take the Maps of Thinking into consideration in the different stages of education. ? Specialists of curriculum and methods of teaching geography have to prepare lists of inferential thinking skills that can be developed through the content of geography and should be included in the geography curricula according to each stage of education. ? Planners and developers of curricula and especially curriculum of geography should make benefits from results of studies that have proved the effectiveness of thinking maps so that they can develop the curriculum and teaching methods. ? A private pupils’ booklet and maps should be prepared according to the thinking maps dealing with a variety of educational activities and cover the subjects studied during the school year. ? For teachers ? Preparation of training courses for teachers in service in order to train them to utilize recent methods and techniques in teaching for developing higher-order thinking skills. ? Students-teachers at faculties of education should be trained on how to use the thinking maps and other recent teaching methods that proved their effectiveness. Suggestions for further studies In light of the study findings and as extension of this study، the researcher suggests those further studies: ? Further studies may be conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the thinking Maps in developing other types of thinking such as; reflective thinking and innovative thinking among students in various other subjects. ? Further studies may be conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the thinking maps developing skills beyond knowledge in geography. ? Further studies may be conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of thinking maps for developing attitudes and tendencies towards geography at various educational levels. ? Further studies may be conducted about the use of recent teaching strategies in the development of inferential thinking skills among students. ? Further studies may be conducted to evaluate Social Studies Syllabi in light of their ability to develop inferential thinking skills